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Public Works Programme is a safety net intervention that provides temporary employment to enrolled  poor households to work on labour-intensive activities while providing income support and contributing to the creation of community assets.

Public Works Program is a safety net intervention that enables enrolled households to earn a seasonal income. All households enrolled under Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) are eligible to participate in labor intensive public works and earn an income to meet consumption needs during the annual hunger season and protect their productive assets. In addition to its consumption-smoothing objective, PWP also aims to create and improve community assets, and enhance beneficiaries’ skills. 

Public Works is undertaken during specific period of the year, when labour demand for agricultural activities is low. Two seasonality’s has been established based on the rainfall regimes i.e. unimodal and bimodal rainfall regimes, where PAAs falling under unimodal rainfall will implement works from September to December  and from December to March for areas located in bimodal rainfall areas.


Public Works offers a guaranteed 15 days of paid work per month for four months to enrolled households targeted under the PSSN targeting.  The daily wage rate is the equivalent of TZS 2,300 for 60 days. Thus a household can earn additional income of TZS 138,000 in a year Participation in public works is paid on the basis of attendance and the effective completion of tasks.


Participation in PW activities is on voluntary basis. Each household will have two participants, the household representative and a substitute who are eligible to participate in PW activities. Both the household representative and the substitute aged above 18 years and able bodied person will participate. However payment for the work done will be made to the household representative.

Eligible Activities for Public Works Programme

Public work activities must be selected from the menu of labor-intensive public works listed in the Public Works technical manual. Among the activities that can be implemented include; reforestation, water management, land recovery , construction of terraces to mitigate erosion, water source protection, small scale irrigation schemes, tree nursery among others. These sub-projects have wide communal benefits, are easier to be implemented, maximize environmental benefits and increase resilience to climate change. The unskilled labour costs must make up an average of 75% of the cost of public works and 25% for other non-labour inputs.    All public works must comply with triggered safeguards policies.   

Key steps in implementing Public Works: The following seven steps will be followed



i.          Sensitization and micro planning at Community level

PAA facilitators will sensitize communities on the salient features of PW design and rules in a general meeting called by the Village Council. Households willing to participate in PW activities will be registered using specially designed registration form. The number of beneficiaries who has confirmed to participate in PW in the village determines the scale of the planning, and therefore the number of public work activities needed to absorb the annual number of public works working days.

Every year the PAA level experts facilitate CMC, Village Council and community representatives to undertake village level participatory planning.  The planning process uses existing government planning processes (O&OD) focusing integrated participatory watershed management approach. The process is informed by the menu of eligible labour intensive public works activities. Each year the multi-year plans are reviewed and sub projects for the upcoming year are prioritized in a village level participatory meeting. The highest priority sub projects are then matched to the resources available for the coming year.

ii.         Detailed design

This stage entails visiting the subproject site, collect important data that will facilitate design and cost estimates of the subproject. Technical sector staff at PAA level undertakes detailed design of public works activities in collaboration with CMC, VC and community members. PAA experts use guidelines and norms to design subprojects as detailed in the Public Works Technical Manual. Sub project activities are identified, quantities established and work norms are used to estimates cost of the subproject. At this stage, screening for environmental and social impacts is done, mitigation measures identified, and environmental management plan developed. PAAs experts will establish the availability of land for the subprojects and the required consultation process has to be done to acquire land using existing laws. Once the design is complete, they are subjected to appraisal. Subprojects Data Sheets (SDS) are then prepared capturing all important data of the subproject for entering into the PW MIS.

iii.        Appraisal and Approval

The resulting designs are then appraised to ensure that the proposed works are technically sound, comply with sector norms and standards, adhere to environmental and social safeguards policies and comply with eligibility criteria. Monitoring Officer stationed in each PAA together with PSSN Coordinator and sector experts at the PAA do the desk appraisal. The objective is to ensure that the application package is well documented, with appropriate standard drawings and it meets the required cash transfer requirement to beneficiaries. On sample basis, Sector Experts Team (SET) from respective ministry and TMU undertake a more detailed field review of public works projects to check conformity to sector norms and standards and adherence to safeguards policies. The PAA Finance Committee/Steering Committee for Unguja and Pemba approve subproject application package ready for financing. PSSNC prepare a summary of number of subprojects for each village indicating the cash transfer and a list of tools required to implement the subprojects to TMU for funding.

iv.        Subprojects funds

Funds are disbursed to PAA according to activities to be undertaken.  During sensitization, participatory planning at community level as well as design, appraisal and approval, 3.5% of the anticipated transfers is disbursed to the PAA for these activities. A further 8.5% for supervision during implementation is disbursed at the same time when disbursing funds for PWP inputs (25%).

v.         Procurement of PW inputs

CMC with support from PAA Coordinator does the procurement of goods and services including identification of Local Service Provider (LSP) who will work with CMC during implementation of the subproject. The procurement method used is as detailed in the Community Procurement Handbook. Once procurement method is complete, goods are delivered to the respective Villages and kept in a store provided by Village Council/Mtaa/Shehia.

vi.        Training of CMC

PAA facilitators will train CMC and Local Service Provider (LSP) on key aspect of sub project implementation. This includes the following; keeping the stores,  management and organization of labour, record keeping, maintenance of Job Card and muster rolls, communication with beneficiaries, health and safety at work place, task rate and work measurements, payment of wages, gender consideration, implementation of safeguards measures, fraud and corruption and how to handle grievances.

vii.       Public Works Implementation

Day-to-day management of public works at village level is the responsibility of the Local Service Provider and CMC CPWMCs who plan and decide on activities to be carried on daily basis. LSP contracted by PAA will provide full time supervision. Before commencement of activities, Job Cards generated from PW MIS module are availed to LSP and CMC to record attendance of each beneficiary completing the assigned task. The Job Card is signed by a household representative who turned for work on a particular day and a supervisor. After the end of 15 working days, the supervisor and CMC prepare muster roll indicating the number of days a household has worked. All muster rolls are submitted to PAA Coordinator for review and approval. PAAs enter the information on attendance into the PW MIS to enable them generate pay list. PAA/ward technical staff visits project sites on a regular basis to ensure adherence to technical design and standards. 

viii.      Delivery of wages and reconciliation

Payment of wages is done on monthly basis within three weeks of the fortnight period in which they undertook the work. Cash is transferred to the PAA account, where CMC collect cash from the bank to the pay point agreed among beneficiaries. During pay day, each beneficiary brings the PSSN ID. CMC check the number of days the beneficiary has worked and tallies with the one in the pay list.  Once all payments are made, a report is prepared by CMC to indicate how much has been paid and the amount left. The remaining amount is deposited into the PAA account. PAAs transmit records of paid amount and uncollected amount so that they are entered into the MIS for reconciliation.

Public Works Rollout

Public Works is currently being implemented in 44 PAAs. These are divided into unimodal and bimodal rainfall pattern. PAAs falling under unimodal start implementation from 1st September to March, while those falling under bimodal start implementation from 1st December to March. Thus timely and high level degree of planning is required to ensure implementation start date is not missed. The PAA falling under unimodal include: Dodoma MC, Bahi, Chamwino, Kondoa, Mpwapwa, Singida MC, Mkalama, Singida DC, Iramba, Uyui, Uvinza, Kibondo, Mpanda MC, Mpanda DC, Sumbawanga, Rungwe, Songea, Tunduru and Mufindi.

PAAs falling under bimodal are Kibaha, Bagamoyo, Kisarawe, Ilala, Handeni, Kilosa, Misungwi, Itilima, Mbogwe, Kahama TC, Ngara, Kilwa, Lindi MC, Nachingwea, Lindi DC, Liwale,Masasi TC, Masasi DC, Nanyumbu, Newala, Tandahimba, Mtwara DC, Mtwara MC,Unguja and Pemba. Up to May 2017, over 3,000 subprojects has been implemented in these PAA

Typology of subprojects: Some types of subprojects that have been implemented are:

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Figure 1 : Stone check dam                                                                                                                    Figure 2: Semicircular bunds

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   Figure 3 : Rehabilitated earth fill dam                                                                                             Figure 4 : Gully control


These types of subprojects have the potential to restore eroded land and increase productivity of farmers